What is TL431 used for?

The TL431 in open-loop configuration is often used in as a voltage comparator, undervoltage monitor, overvoltage monitor, window voltage detector and many other type of uses. The TL431 is a shunt voltage reference commonly used for these applications.

How does a optocoupler work?

An Optocoupler can do the job. Let there be light! This device allows you to transmit an electrical signal between two isolated circuits with two parts: an LED that emits infrared light and a photosensitive device which detects light from the LED.

How does a Zener work?

A Zener diode is a silicon semiconductor device that permits current to flow in either a forward or reverse direction. The diode consists of a special, heavily doped p-n junction, designed to conduct in the reverse direction when a certain specified voltage is reached.

Why would you use an optocoupler?

Optocouplers are often used to reject back EMF, noise, and electrical surges from entering an MCU circuit. Optocouplers create a safe connection between high voltage equipment and microcontrollers with a means of complete electrical insulation.

What does TL431 stand for?

TL431 / TL432 Precision Programmable Reference datasheet (Rev. P) open-in-new Online data sheet A newer version of this product is available open-in-newCompare products Pin-for-pin with same functionality to the compared device.

Why doesn’t the TL431 get much attention?

Perhaps a reason the TL431 doesn’t get much attention because it looks like a simple transistor, not an IC. Six examples of power supplies using the TL431. Top row: cheap 5 volt power supply, cheap phone charger, Apple iPhone charger (also ‘GB9’ variant in lower left).

What is the TL431 in switch-mode power supplies loops?

The TL431 in Switch-Mode Power Supplies loops is a classic TL431 paper by Christophe Basso and Petr Kadanka. This explains the TL431 from the internals through loop compensation to an actual power supply. It includes a detailed schematic and description of how the TL431 operates internally. Other related articles are at powerelectronics.com .

What is the maximum voltage a TL431 can produce?

The maximum sustained, regulated voltage may not exceed 36 V; the maximum cathode-anode voltage is limited to 37 V. Historically, TL431 was designed and manufactured with this application in mind, and was advertised as an “extremely attractive replacement for high cost, temperature-compensated zeners”.