What is the difference between a red dwarf and a white dwarf?

A white dwarf describes the state in which a star has reached the end of its life cycle, while a red dwarf describes a low mass and density star whose nuclear reactions take place over trillions of years. The other commonality between these two dwarfs is that they shine less brightly than other stars in the sky.

Do red giants turn into planetary nebula?

For low mass stars, they become red giants and turn into planetary nebula and for massive stars where they go through the sequence of nuclear burning all the way up to iron.

What is the difference between giant star and dwarf star?

A giant star is a star with substantially larger radius and luminosity than a main-sequence (or dwarf) star of the same surface temperature. They lie above the main sequence (luminosity class V in the Yerkes spectral classification) on the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram and correspond to luminosity classes II and III.

What is the difference between a red giant and supergiant?

While a red giant might form when a star with the mass of our Sun runs out of fuel, a red supergiant occurs when a star with more than 10 solar masses begins this phase.

What’s the difference between a planetary nebula and a white dwarf?

A planetary nebula is a special type of nebula made when the outer layers of an old, giant star are thrown off into space. A white dwarf is the small, faint and very dense star that remains behind after a planetary nebula has formed.

What kind of stars form planetary nebula?

Smaller stars like our sun end their lives by ejecting their outer layers of gas into space over the course of about 10,000 years, leaving behind the star’s hot core — a white dwarf. Radiation from the white dwarf causes the gas to glow, creating a unique and beautiful formation called a planetary nebula.

What forms a planetary nebula?

A planetary nebula is a region of cosmic gas and dust formed from the cast-off outer layers of a dying star. Despite their name, planetary nebulae have nothing to do with planets.

Why do red giants become planetary nebulae?

Low-mass stars turn into planetary nebulae towards the end of their red giant phase. At that point the star becomes highly unstable and starts to pulsate. This produces strong stellar winds which throw off the outer layers of the star.

Why are red giants and white dwarfs not in the main sequence?

In general, the more massive a star is, the shorter its lifespan on the main sequence. After the hydrogen fuel at the core has been consumed, the star evolves away from the main sequence on the HR diagram, into a supergiant, red giant, or directly to a white dwarf.

What is the difference between red giants and supergiants?

What is the difference between white dwarf and brown dwarf?

These are called white dwarfs and are so faint that none is visible to the naked eye. They are very small and dense, formed when a main sequence star reaches the end of its life. White dwarf stars gradually cool over time until they no longer emit light. The smallest, dimmest, and coolest stars are brown dwarfs.

How are a white dwarf and a planetary nebula related?

Why is planetary nebula called planetary?

Observed telescopically, they have a relatively round compact appearance rather than the chaotic patchy shapes of other nebulae—hence their name, which was given because of their resemblance to planetary disks when viewed with the instruments of the late 1700s, when the first planetary nebulae were discovered.

What is the difference between red giants and main sequence stars?

Eventually, as stars age, they evolve away from the main sequence to become red giants or supergiants. The core of a red giant is contracting, but the outer layers are expanding as a result of hydrogen fusion in a shell outside the core. The star gets larger, redder, and more luminous as it expands and cools.

How do planetary nebulae differ from one another?

Planetary nebulae actually have nothing to do with planets. They are called such due to the planetary shape of the nebulae. The name was coined by William Herschel. Most nebulae are composed of mainly hydrogen which causes most nebulae to appear red in part Balmer series emissions.

How are white dwarf stars different from the main sequence?

In a normal Main Sequence star, the pressure of gravity is withstood by the forces of nuclear fusion. In a white dwarf, however, all nuclear fuel has been exhausted and gravity compresses the core inwards, forcing the matter into a degenerate state.

How does a planetary nebula become a white dwarf?

How does a red giant become a white dwarf?

In a red giant, the inner helium core contracts while the outer layers of hydrogen expand. When the helium is gone, the stars become white dwarfs.