What is the composition of greywacke?

Greywacke or graywacke (German grauwacke, signifying a grey, earthy rock) is a variety of sandstone generally characterized by its hardness, dark color, and poorly sorted angular grains of quartz, feldspar, and small rock fragments or lithic fragments set in a compact, clay-fine matrix.

Is greywacke a volcanic rock?

This type of sandstone contains fewer grains made of quartz and more of feldspars, volcanic rock fragments ,as well as silt and clay than most sanstone. It is therefore also known as “dirty sandstone”. The volcanic rock fragments give graywacke a greenish-gray color.

What is claystone made of?

In order to be considered a claystone, it must consist of up to 50% clay, which measures < 1/256 of a millimeter in particle size. Clay minerals are integral to mudrocks, and represent the first or second most abundant constituent by volume, as there are 35 recognized clay mineral species on earth.

What type of rock is greywacke?

Graywacke sandstone is a sedimentary rock that is made up mostly of sand-size grains that were rapidly deposited very near the source rock from which they were weathered.

How much feldspar is in greywacke?

However, part of the chlorite–sericite matrix originates from diagenetic changes of unstable rock fragments. Feldspathic graywacke matrix contains a considerable amount of feldspar, and rock fragments in addition to quartz up to 95%.

How was greywacke formed in New Zealand?

Over 200 million years, tens of thousands of metres of these sediments built up off the edge of Gondwana. They were eventually buried, deformed and hardened to become the rocks known as the Torlesse greywackes. Today, Torlesse rocks make up more than half of the New Zealand landmass.

What is claystone rock?

A claystone is a lithified and non-cleavable mudrock. In order for a rock to be considered a claystone, it must consist of at least fifty percent clay (phyllosilicates), whose particle measures less than 1/256 of a millimeter in size.

How are claystone made?

Weathering and erosion of rocks like granites concentrate elements that are necessary to form clay minerals, which accumulate as sediments. The deposition and burial of clays, in the delta of a river, for example, lead to the formation of the sedimentary rocks claystone and shale.

Is greywacke clastic or chemical?

Clastic Sedimentary Rocks

Sandstone [Sand]
Arkose (feldspar-rich sandstone) [Feldspathic sand]
Greywacke [Quartz–feldspar–clay sand]
Flagstone [Micaceous sand]
Siltstone [Silt]

Where can you find greywacke in NZ?

Greywacke forms the older basement rocks of the eastern part of the South Island and the higher non-volcanic mountains of the North Island. The hills and coast of the Wellington region are made of greywacke.

Is greywacke a metamorphic rock?

Greywacke is more than just a sedimentary rock like mudstone. It has undergone some degree of metamorphism by burial, and the combination of pressure and heating has both hardened the rock and produced new minerals.

How was greywacke formed NZ?

What type of sedimentary rock is greywacke?

Greywacke. It is a texturally immature sedimentary rock generally found in Paleozoic strata. The larger grains can be sand- to gravel-sized, and matrix materials generally constitute more than 15% of the rock by volume. The term “greywacke” can be confusing, since it can refer to either the immature…

What minerals are found in greywacke?

Greywacke. They can contain a very great variety of minerals, the principal ones being quartz, orthoclase and plagioclase feldspars, calcite, iron oxides and graphitic, carbonaceous matters, together with (in the coarser kinds) fragments of such rocks as felsite, chert, slate, gneiss, various schists, and quartzite.

What are the different types of greywacke?

Some varieties include feldspathic greywacke, which is rich in feldspar, and lithic greywacke, which is rich in tiny rock fragments.

Where do greywacke deposits form?

Supporting the turbidity current origin theory is that deposits of greywacke are found on the edges of the continental shelves, at the bottoms of oceanic trenches, and at the bases of mountain formational areas.